shape
>>   Web Page Maker V3
Make your own web pages easily!



>>   Web Page Maker V3
Make your own web pages easily!


shape
Poompuhar Poompuhar is in the Sirkali Taluk of Nagapattinam district and it is
also known as Kaveripoompattinam. The place has great historical importance.

The historical importance of Poompuhar












Among the dynamic dynasties that ruled over Tamil Nadu the Cholas held a place
of esteem and used this ancient town as their port capital. Puhar in Tamil means
the estuary of river in the sea.

This port town of Kaveripoompattinam has been mentioned and cited on the temple
inscriptions, in ancient literature and travelogues, different names and it has
been referred to as Kaganthi, Sampapathi, Palarpukar Moothur, Mannagathu
Vanpathi, Cholapattinam, Kaberia

Emporium, and Kolapattinam.

There are frequent references to this important port town in ancient Tamil
literature. Books like the Akananooru, Purananooru, Pattinappalai,
Pathirruppathu, Mutthollayiram, Silappathikaram, Manimekalai, Devaram,
Thirutthondarpuranam and Nandhikkalampagamrefer to this town. Ancient Pali
literature like Milindapan, Buuttha Jathakakathaikal Abithamma Avathar and
Buddhavamsakatha and the travelogues of Periplus, and Merris Erithroy contain
the references to Kaveripoompattinam. Ptolemy and Pliny also mention Poompuhar
in their writings.

Somaya a Buddha Pikkuni from Poompuhar donated one of the beautifully sculptured
pillars that were erected by the Sunga-Kings of North-India during the second
century B.C. The pillars carry the inscription Kaganthia Somaya Pikkunia Thanam
which means “This Pillar was donated by Somaya Pikkuni of Poompuhar.” Buddhism
flourished in Poompuhar two thousands years ago.

With the rise of later Cholas in 850 A.D. the city regained its past glory. It
is mentioned as Rajathiraja Valanaattu Nangoor Naattu Kaveripoompattinam in the
Sayavanam temple inscription of Vikrama Cholan in the same temple. The town is
called Puhar Nagaram. Later Kopperunchingan also contributed to the
grandeur of the place.

Details of Poompuhar have been read in the Brahmi inscriptions that date back to
the second century B.C. in Barkuth of north India. The ancient Kings like
Sembiyan, Musugundam, Manuneethi Cholan and Karikala Cholan who carried myths
with them, added to the glory of Poompuhar town. Poompuhar grew into a great
city during the reign of Karikala Cholan. He conquered territories up to the
Himalayas and made a pass into China through the Himalayas. On his return
Karikala Cholan brought back the monuments and gifts like the korrappanda,
presented by the Vajra king, the Pattimandabam by the Magatha King and the
Thoranavayil by the Avanthi King. These were rulers who were defeated by
Karikala Cholan and these items were exhibited them at Poompuhar.

Indra vizha was celebrated during the period of Thodithol Chempian. Inscriptions
at Thiruvengadu make a mention of the grand festival of Indra, during the later
Chola times. Even after Sangam Chola's period, Poompuhar occupied a significant
place during the regime of Kalabras, in the 6th century A.D. After Kalabras,
Poompuhar came under the Pallava rulers and during that time they built the
Pallavaneeswaran temple. The great Saiva Saints Appar and Thirugnana Sambandar
have sanctified the temples with their holy hymns.

The Structure Of Poompuhar City 2000 years ago









Indra vizha was celebrated during the period of Thodithol Chempian. Inscriptions
at Thiruvengadu make a mention of the grand festival of Indra, during the later
Chola times. Even after Sangam Chola's period, Poompuhar occupied a significant
place during the regime of Kalabras, in the 6th century A.D. After Kalabras,
Poompuhar came under the Pallava rulers and during that time they built the
Pallavaneeswaran temple. The great Saiva Saints Appar and Thirugnana Sambandar
have sanctified the temples with their holy hymns.

The Structure Of Poompuhar City 2000 years ago
The structure of Poompuhar town can be traced from the fifth chapter of the
Silappathikaram, Pattinappalai. Manimegalai also describes the same. The city is
said to have been designed on the lines of Mayan's architecture. The town had
well-marked divisions known as Pattinappakkam and Maruvurppakkam. The market
place in the middle known as Nalangadi during the day and as Allangadi by night.
The seashore was inhabited by the fisher folk. The town had several warehouses.
Weavers, silk merchants, vendors, fish and meat sellers, potters, grain
merchants’ jewellers and diamond makers lived in Maruvurppakkam. The kings and
nobles, rich traders and farmers, physicians, astrologers, members of the king’s
army, court dancers occupied Pattinappakkam. The five Manrams - Vellidai Manram,
Elanchi Manram, Nedankal manram, Poothachathukkam and Pavaimanram were located
in Pattinappakkam. Gardens like Elavanthikaicholai, Uyyanam., Chanpathivanam,
Uvavanam, and Kaveravanam added beauty to the town.
During excavations, temples for Lord Shiva, and Chathukkappootham the last of
the deities were found in the city. There are temples for Shiva, Indra, his
elephant Iravatham, and his Vajrayutham, Balaraman, Suriyan, Machatham,
Chandran, Arugan and Thirumal. Buddha sthupas or pillars and seven Buddha
viharas were also found. Apart from these, a temple for Champapathi Amman, brick
idols, and UlagaAravi Manram existed in Poompuhar.

Cool and shady river banks with trees and dense foliage, sacred passages from
temples to the river for Gods to come and bathe, and the ringed wells on the
fringes of the town were salient features of the town planning that have been
noted during excavations. The town had a compound wall engraved with tiger
emblem.


The town also had different market places and living areas for foreigners like
Yavanas.

Excavations at Poompuhar

Excavation work on the lost Poompuhar city has been in progress since 1910. The
excavations conducted by Indian Archaeological Department have revealed the
existence of several ringed-wells called Urai Kinaru near the seashore.
Pattinappalai a book Sangam period speaks of these wells.

The excavation has also been taken up near Champapathi Amman and Pallavaneswaram
temples. The remains of the various buildings have been found during the
excavation in 1960-1961. Remains of a brick building and a boat-jetty were
discovered at the Keezhaiyur area in Poompuhar. A water reservoir and the
remains of several buildings were also found. Relics of a sixty feet long Buddha
vihar with rectangular rooms were discovered at Pallavaneswaram. The Buddhapada
or the feet of Lord Buddha in limestone was unearthed. This Buddhapada in
limestone resembles the marble feet that was dug up from Amaravathi and
Nagarjunakonda the Buddhist sites in Andhra Pradesh. The size of this Buddhapada
3 1/2' x 2 1/2' and it has two feet and holy symbols like lotus flowers, the
poornakumbam and the swastikam. Several other brick figures and copper coins
were also found. These coins were both rectangular and circular in shape. The
Chola emblems of the tiger with the upright tail and the sun were engraved on
them. These coins are considered to be those of Karikala Cholan.
Recently the Archaeological Department of Tamil Nadu has discovered the remains
of several buildings of this period. The National Institute of Oceanography, Goa
and the Archaeological Department of Tamil Nadu have undertaken the offshore
exploration of Poompuhar. The ancient Pricelen remains are exhibited in the
Marine Archaeological Museum at Poompuhar. (Time 10. a.m to 5.45 p.m - Entrance
Fee Rs 5/- and rs 50/- for Foreigners)

POOMPUHAR AGAIN

After the Chola period a major part of the Poompuhar town submerged in the Bay
of Bengal. Though Poompuhar became a prey to the sea, a few small villages still
remain and bear silent witness to the cruelty of times. Thirusaikadu or
Sayavanam, Pallavaneeswaram, Melapperumpallam, Keelaperumpallam, Keezaiyur and
Vanagiri are the remains of ancient Poompuhar that exist today. The Tamil Nadu
Government has taken steps to reproduce the glory of thus submerged and
scattered ancient town on the basis of historical evidence and literary
references that exist. In 1973 Kalaingnar Dr. M. Karunanidhi, the Honourable
Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu at that time, gave a crystallised form to redeeming
this lost town, by asking that the archaeologists reproduce the town based on
literary evidence available. Several symbolic monuments were raised.
Sillappathikara Art Gallery, Ilanji Manram, Pavaimanram, Nedungal Manram and
Kotrappandal found their existence, and remain today to attract visitors, with
their artistic splendour

.SILLAPPATHIKARA - ART GALLERY









   

A beautiful seven-tired building of great sculptural value has been built as Sillappathikara Art gallery. The first storey is 12”high and each storey above it has a height of 5’. The topmost part, which has “Kalasam has height of 8’.   The total height of art gallery is 50’.

The ”Magara Thoranavayil” at the entrance of the art gallery imparts an imposing and beatiful look to the whole structure.  Its height is 221/2’ It has been designed on the pattern of Magara Thorana Vayil found in Suruli Malai Mangala devi koil. There is also anklet shaped tank in the art gallery.  On this sides of this tank are erected the statues of Kannag (91/2)’and Mathavi (81/2)’

Scenes from Sillappathiram, the epic of the land have been given lively shapes in stones on the walls of the gallery. These sculptures carved by the sculptors of Mamallapuram Art College remain the treasure house of Tamil culture


GENERAL INFORMATION
Area: 14.90-sq-kms
Population: 86,155 (1991 Census)
Clothing: Light Cottons
Language Spoken: Tamil and English
Climate: Tropical
Temperature Range (deg C):
Summer- Max 35.8ºC, Min 22.4ºC
Winter- Max 27.6ºC, Min 20.1ºC

HOW TO GET THERE
Air: The airport at Trichy is at a distance of 141-km.
Rail - The nearest railway station is at Mayiladuturai (24-km). Tourists have to alight at Mayiladuthurai railway junction, to proceed to Poompuhar by road. Visitors from Chennai by train have to get down at Sirkali. There are also train facilities from Nagappattinam to Thanjavur, Trichy, Chennai and Nagore.
Road - Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporations operate town buses to nearby areas like Karaikal, Nagappattinam, Mayiladuthrrai and Sirkali. Hired vehicles like cars and auto rickshaws are also available.


Shell Type Cottage I (Sangu Type) Rs 150/- Two Beds A/C
Shell Type Cottage II (Sippi Typpe) Two Beds Rs120/-Two Beds A/C
Tourist Lodge  Rs 25/- per room(Two Beds with common Toilet)

Tourist office poompuhar
poompuhar tourist comples
poompuhar-609106 Nagapattinam Distric
ph 04364-260439

"Blessed is he who considers the poor; The LORD will deliver him in time of trouble. The LORD will preserve him and keep him alive, And he will be blessed on the earth; You will not deliver him to the will of his enemies.- Psalms 41:1-2



2010 @ All rights reserved.